Morphological and physiological adaptations of farmed red deer

N. D. Ovcharenko, E. A. Kuchina

Abstract


A comparative analysis of the structural and functional state of the organs of the peripheral endocrine system in red deer and other deer living in different conditions was carried out. Seasonal reorganization of the adrenal, thyroid, and endocrine parts of the testis underlies the morpho-physiological adaptive mechanisms in animals. We identified them as general biological and species-specific patterns, associated with the red deer with specific habitat conditions, especially in farming. Data on the morpho-functional status of ovaries in females of modern red deer also allow us to consider them being seasonally polyester. Thus, there are some data on the presence of 3-4 sexual cycles in the breeding season in female vapiti. It was noted that even in the red deer females during the rut period there can be several ovulations, and in winter 18.5% of females undergo anovulatory sexual cycles, while the inadequate development of follicles is attributed to poor nutrition and insufficient iodine content in soil and water of Mountainous Altai. We supposed that long period of relatively high level of spermatogenic activity of the testes, found by us in the red deer, can be regarded as the adaptation of males to the seasonal polyestricity of females, which reflects the evolutionary history of the species.


Keywords


red deer; adrenal glands; thyroid gland; endocrine part of the testis; structural and functional condition; seasonal changes

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15421/2017_97

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