Effect of mulching tillage and fertilization on maize growth and development in Ukrainian Steppe

A.I. Tsyliuryk, V.I. Kozechko

Abstract


We proved the high efficiency of soil mulching cultivating (chisel, planar) and improved fertilizer system (N60P30K30 + post-harvest residues) in the technology of corn growing, which is not inferior to the plowing, provides optimal biometric indices of plants and elements of the structure of crop corn crop. We observed only a slight tendency in reducing the morphological characteristics of the canines (diameter, length, and number of grains) for flat-rope loosening (14-16 cm), especially in non-fertilized areas (control), which is explained by the negative influence of growth of bulk mass and hardness soil, reduction of nitric capacity of chernozem, and deterioration of phytosanitary state of crops. Application of mineral fertilizers (N30-60P30K30) reduces this insignificant difference and contributes to obtaining practically identical indicators. The maximum grain yield of corn on the unfertilized filed and the introduction of the N30P30K30 could be achieved by field plowing and mulching (4.83-5.33 t/ha), when the usage of subsurface plow with the increase of nitrogen (N30-60P30K30) also contribute to high yields (5.62 t/ha). The last could be associated with the normalization of the nitrate mobilization when a plurality of plant residues from the predecessor (5-7 t/ha) are introduced into the soil. The minor differences of the corn yield indicate the equivalence of these basic soil cultivation methods.


Keywords


corn;mulching cultivation;biometric indices;post-harvest residues;mineral fertilizers;yield

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15421/2017_48

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