Cadmium distribution in soils of Dnipropetrovsk oblast and its accumulation in crop production

V.I. Chorna, N.V. Voroshylova, V.A. Syrovatko

Abstract


The challenge of environmental pollution by various chemicals occurs during assessment of pollutants accumulation in agricultural plants and influenceof soil factors on this process and identification of fundamental mechanisms of heavy metals migration in the soil-plant system; heavy metals hold a special place among such pollutants. Danger of heavy metals entering in environment is determined by the fact that heavy metals do not degrade unlike organic pollutants, but can transform from one form to another. Contamination assessment of soil and agricultural plants by heavy metals (Cd) in the territory of Dnipropetrovsk region was conducted on 29 monitoring sites located on two soil types: ordinary chernozem and south ordinary chernozem. Cadmium intake from soil was studied on the main crops: grains and straw of wheat; and sunflower seed. Cadmium content was determined by the technique of atomic absorption spectrometry. Density of probability distribution on cadmium concentrations in soils and crop production was obtained by statistical modeling according to logarithmically normal distribution.It was established that only 3 components are distinguished within integral curve of probability distribution density on cadmium distribution in soil with the following sequence: ordinary chernozem, southern ordinary chernozem, and areas influenced pollution exposures of various degree. It has been established within the region that 23% of wheat grain crop have excess cadmium content. Secondary products (straw) have similar characteristics, but with higher average values and higher variability. It was established that 4 components are distinguished within integral curve of probability distribution density on sunflower seed with adequate mean values:Root system of the investigated plants performs a protective function, which inhibit cadmium transport in aboveground part of plants and its accumulation in generative and reproductive organs. Biological features of plants, along with the agrochemical properties of soil, can be attributed to the main factors that influence Cd transition from soil to agricultural plants.


Keywords


heavy metals;fertility;soil;agricultural crops

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15421/2018_293

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