Effect of nitrogen, wheat residues, and compost rates on the growth and yield of sunflower

B. Bagheri, S. A. Kazemeini, M. J. Bahrani, B. Heidari

Abstract


In modern agriculture, precise integrated management of farmlands requires natural, sustainable and environmentally friendly inputs replacing chemical fertilizers application. A two-year (2015-2016) field experiment was conducted to determine the influence of integrated application of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) residues and compost accompanied by nitrogen (N) on growth, seed yield and yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) at School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. The experiment was conducted at split plots arranged in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Treatments included four N (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg N ha-1) two wheat residues (1.5 and 3 t ha-1), two municipal compost (50 and 70 t ha-1) rates and control (no additives). The results showed that higher N rates increased seed yield, whereas it reduced its oil content. Application of wheat residues and compost increased growth, seed yield, and seed oil content compared to control. The effect of compost application on seed yield increase was more pronounced than crop residues. Therefore, for an environmentally andagronomically sound management strategy, high compost application (70 t ha-1) combined with proper N fertilization is recommended for sunflower production in the region. 

Keywords


chemical fertilizer; conservation farming; organic material; seed oil; sustainable agriculture

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdyl-Razak, M.M.A., Hamzah, I.A., Alag, M.K., Ahmed, S.A. (2014). Influence of irrigation method, weed, and splitting nitrogen fertilizers on water use efficiency and productivity of sunflower. Inter. J. Agric. Crop Sci, 7, 136-145.

Adebayo, A., Akintoye, H., Aina, O., Olatunji, M., Shokalu, A. (2012). Assessment of organic amendments on growth and flower yield of sunflower (Helianthus annus). Libyan Agric. Res. Center J. Inter, 3, 24-29.

AOAC. (1970). Official method of analysis. Washington D.C., United States: Association of official of analytical chemists (AOAC).

Balasubramanian, P., Karthickumar, P. (2017). Biofertilizers and biopesticides: A holistic approach for sustainable agriculture Sustainable utilization of natural resources. New York, US: CRC Press. p 255-284. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315153292-10

Chapman, M.A., Mandel, J.R., Burke, J.M. (2013). Sequence validation of candidates for selectively important genes in sunflower. PlOS One, 8, 719-741. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071941

De Oliveira, C., De Oliveira, J., Barbosa, F., Dario, A., Moura, S., Barros, H. (2014). Effect of top dressing nitrogen on sunflower yield, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Cientifica, 42, 233-241. https://doi.org/10.15361/1984-5529.2014v42n3p233-241

Dietrich, T., Velasco, M.V., Echeverria, P., Pop, B., Rusu, A. (2016). Crop and Plant Biomass as Valuable Material for BBB. Alternatives for Valorization of Green Wastes. In: Poltronieri P, Fernando D'Urso O, Editors. Biotransformation of agricultural waste and by-products: The food, feed, fibre, fuel (4f) economy. Washington DC, USA: Elsevier Inc. p 134-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803622-8.00001-X

Faostat. (2015). Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Report. p://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC. acces online at: 4 February 2018.

Gholamhoseini, M., Ghalavand, A., Khodaei-Joghan, A., Dolatabadian, A., Zakikhani, H., Farmanbar, E. (2013). Zeolite-amended cattle manure effects on sunflower yield, grain quality, water use efficiency and nutrient leaching. Soil Till. Res, 126, 193-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2012.08.002

Havlin, J., Kissel, D., Maddux, L., Claassen, M., Long, J. (1990). Crop rotation and tillage effects on soil organic carbon and nitrogen. Soil Sci. Soc. American J, 54, 448-452. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1990.03615995005400020026x

Hawkesford, M.J. 2014. Reducing the reliance on nitrogen fertilizer for wheat production. J. Cereal Sci, 59, 276-283.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2013.12.001

Hussain, R.A., Ahmad, R., Nawaz, F., Ashraf, M.Y., Waraich, E.A. (2016). Foliar NK application mitigates drought effects in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Acta Physiol. Plant, 38, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-016-2104-z

Jones, S., Bardos, R.P., Kidd, P.S., Mench, M., De Leij, F., Hutchings, T., Cundy, A., Joyce, C., Soja, G., Friesl-Hanl, W. (2016). Biochar and compost amendments enhance copper immobilisation and support plant growth in contaminated soils. J. Environ. Manag, 171, 101-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.01.024

Kazemeini, S.A., Edalat, M., Shekoofa, A. (2009). Interaction effects of deficit irrigation and row spacing on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) growth, grain yield and oil yield. Afri. J. Agric. Res, 4, 1165-1170.

Khatik S, Dikshit P. (2001). Integrated use of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on yield, quality, economics and nutrition of sunflower grown in Haplustert clay soil. Agric. Sci. Digest, 21, 87-90.

Krenkel, P. (2012). Water quality management. Academic Press: New York.

Kumar, S., Aryan, P.K. (2016). A critical study and analysis for the response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants to phytohormones and nitrogen fertilizers under drainage water irrigation system. Imper. J. Interdiscip. Res, 2, 344-354.

Lampkin, N.H., Smith, J., Smith, L.G. (2016). Agroecology and Organic Farming as Approaches to Reducing the Environmental Impacts of Agricultural ChemicalsAgricultural Chemicals and the Environment. New York, USA: Royal Soc. Chemist, 94-113.

Li, X.G., Jia, B., Lv, J., Ma, Q., Kuzyakov, Y., Li, F.M. (2017). Nitrogen fertilization decreases the decomposition of soil organic matter and plant residues in planted soils. Soil Biol. Bioch, 112, 47-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.04.018

Litaor, M., Katz, L., Shenker, M. (2017). The influence of compost and zeolite co‐addition on the nutrients status and plant growth in intensively cultivated Mediterranean soils. Soil Use Manag, 45, 233-245. https://doi.org/10.1111/sum.12324

Lorenz, K., Lal, R. (2016). Environmental impact of organic agriculture. Adv. Agron, 139, 99-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.agron.2016.05.003

Marchesini, A., Allievi, L., Comotti, E., Ferrari, A. (1988). Long-term effects of quality-compost treatment on soil. Plant Soil, 106, 253-261. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02371221

Medina, J. Monreal, C., Barea, J.M., Arriagada, C., Borie, F., Cornejo, P. (2015). Crop residue stabilization and application to agricultural and degraded soils: a review. Waste Manag, 42, 41-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2015.04.002

Montemurro, F., Maiorana, M., Convertini, G., Fornaro, F. 2005. Improvement of soil properties and nitrogen utilisation of sunflower by amending municipal solid waste compost. Agron. Sust. Devel, 25, 369-375. https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2005038

Otie, V., Ping, A., John, N., Eneji, A.E. (2016). Interactive effects of plant growth regulators and nitrogen on corn growth and nitrogen use efficiency. J. Plant Nut, 39, 1597-1609. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2016.1161779

Patil, P.N., Sawant, D.V., Deshmukh, R. (2012). Physico-chemical parameters for testing of water-A review. Inter. J. Environ. Sci, 3, 1194-1208.

Robacer, M., Canali, S., Kristensen, H.L., Bavec, F., Mlakar, S.G., Jakop, M., Bavec, M. (2016). Cover crops in organic field vegetable production. Sci. Hort, 208, 104-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.12.029

SAS, I. (1985). SAS user's guide: statistics: Sas Inst.

Shahid, L.A., Saeed, M.A., Amjad, N. (2010). Present status and future prospects of mechanized production of oilgrain crops in Pakistan-a review. Pak. J. Agric. Res, 23, 102-120.

Spinelli, D., Bardi, L., Fierro, A., Jez, S., Basosi, R. (2013). Environmental analysis of sunflower production with different forms of mineral nitrogen fertilizers. J. Environ. Manag, 129, 302-308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.07.029

Stagnari, F., Maggio, A., Galieni, A., Pisante, M. (2017). Multiple benefits of legumes for agriculture sustainability: an overview. Chem. Biol. Technol. Agric, 4, 212-230. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40538-016-0085-1

Tesfai, M, Moed, I., Greipsland, I., Huber, T., Van Duivenbooden, N. (2016). Integrated Soil and Nutrient Management Practices: Adaptation and Mitigation to Climate Change Impacts (pp. 161-176). In: Nagothu, U.S. (ed). Climate Change and Agricultural Development: Improving Resilience Through Climate Smart Agriculture, Agroecology And Conservation. Taylor and Francis: Florence.

Zhang, X., Davidson, E.A., Mauzerall, D.L., Searchinger, T.D., Dumas, P., Shen, Y. (2015). Managing nitrogen for sustainable development. Nature, 528, 51-59. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature15743

Zhao, Y., Li, Y., Wang, J., Pang, H., Li, Y. (2016). Buried straw layer plus plastic mulching reduces soil salinity and increases sunflower yield in saline soils. Soil Tillage Res, 155, 363-370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2015.08.019

Zhou, M., Zhu, B., Bruggemann, N., Bergmann, J., Wang, Y., Butterbach-Bahl, K. (2014). N2O and CH4 emissions, and NO3−leaching on a crop-yield basis from a subtropical rain-fed wheat–maize rotation in response to different types of nitrogen fertilizer. Ecosystems. 17, 286-301. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-013-9723-7




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15421/2018_274

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

© 2017 Ukrainian Journal of Ecology. ISSN 2520-2138