Graphically x-ray and ultrasound diagnostics for monitnoring neoplasia of the mammary gland in bitches

A. Mysak, Z. Kiełbowicz, N. Khomyn, V. Pritsak, B. Gutyj


The article deals with the results of clinical, X-ray and sonographic examination of 127 bitches of different breeds aged from 5 to 16 years, which over the years of 2006‑2015 were coming into the clinic of small animals of LNUVMB named after S.Z. Gzhytskyj with neoplasia of mammary gland. According to the initial examination of animals the clinical signs typical for mammary gland tumors were found in 102 (80.3%) dogs. According to the criteria of international clinical TNM classification in 44 (43.14%) bitches was detected the first stage of tumor process (T1аN0M0, T1аN1аM0), in 25 (24.51 %) – in II (T1bN1aM0, T1bN1bM0, T1b, с N1аM0, T1b,с N1bM0, T2аN0M0, T2bN0M0, T2bN1аM0, Т2b,с N1аM0), in 29 (28.43 %) – ІІІ (T1b,с N2bM0, Т2b,сN1bM0, Т3аN1аM0, Т3bN1bM0, T3b,с N1аM0, T3b,с N1bM0) and in 4 (3.92 %) – ІV (T3b,с N1bM1, T3b,с N2bM1) the stage of tumors. In 25 (19.7 %) from 127 dogs, signs of neoplasia were expressed unclearly. Roentgen graphically in 58 (45.7%) of dogs with the II, III, and IV stage of tumors it was found out the local structural changes, indicating the location, size and shape of neoplasia and their relationship to the surrounding tissues; distant metastases in the lungs and liver were detected in 4 animals. According to 69 animals research the obtained results were less informative because of not clear or doubtful for visualization of X-ray structural changes typical for neoplasia. In 95.27% of studied bitches by ultrasound examination MR it was carried out differential diagnosis of fibrocystic mastitis, benign and malignant neoplasms. Summarizing the results of clinical, X-ray and sonographic investigations you can see that integrated mutually complementary interpretation of obtained data is weighty argument for the identification of intractable lesions, diagnosis and monitoring of mammary gland tumors in bitches during preoperative examination.


dogs;neoplasia;distribution;mammary gland;TNM classification of tumors;radiological and son graphic method of investigation

Full Text:



Brоnden, L. Nielsen, S. , Toft, N. (2010). Data from the Danish veterinary cancer registry on the occurrence and distribution of neoplasms in dogs in Denmark. Veterinary Record, 166(19), 586 590. doi: 10.1136/vr.b4808

Cullen, J.M. Page, R., Misdorp, W. (2008). An overview of cancer pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Tumors in domestic animals. Fourth edition. Iowa State University Press, 3 44. doi: 10.1002/9780470376928.ch1

Egenvall, A., Bonnett, B. N. , Ohagen, P., Olson, P. (2005). Incidence of and survival after mammary tumors in apopulation of over 80 000 insured female dogs in Sweden from 1995 to 2002. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 69, 109–127. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.01.014

Hildebrand, W., Dzimira, S. (2006). Onkologia psow i kotow. Weterynaria w Praktyce, 1(2), 60 62 (in Polish)

MacEwen, E., Withrow, S. (1996). Tumors of the mammary gland. Small animal clinical oncology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 356–372. doi: 10.1002/9780470376928.ch12

Matos, A. J., Baptista, C. S., Gärtner, M.F., Rutteman, G.R. (2012). Prognostic studies of canine and feline mammary tumours: the need for standardized procedures. Vet. Journal, 193 (3), 24 31. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.12.019

Misdorp, W. Meuten, D. (2002). Tumors of the mammary gland. Tumors of domestic animals, 575–606. doi: 10.1002/9780470376928.ch12

Morris, J., Dobson, J. (2003). Onkologia mallych zwierząt. Sima WLW: Warszawa (in Polish).

Mouser, P., Miller, M. А., Antuofermo, E., Badve, S.S. (2010). Prevalence and classification of spontaneous mammary in traepithelial lesions in dogs without clinical mammary disease. Vet. Pathology, 47, 265 274. doi: 10.1177/0300985809358603

Mysak, A.R. (2010). Zastosuvannja klinichnoi' klasyfikacii' puhlyn za systemoju TNM pry spontannyh novoutvorennjah u sobak. Naukovyj visnyk LNUVMB imeni S.Z.Gzhyc'kogo, 12, 3(45), 170–176 (in Ukrainian).

Mysak, A.R., Pritsak, V.V. (2011). Renthenologichna i uljtrazvukova diagnostyka neoplazij molochnoji zalozy u suk. Naukovyj visnyk LNUVMBT imeni S.Z. Gzhutsjkogo, 13, 4(50), 293 304. (in Ukrainian).

Owen, L.N. (1980). TNM Classification of Tumors in Domestic Animals. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Piastowska, A.W. (2006). Wyniszczenie nowotworowe – powaźny problemu pacjentόw onkologicznich. Magazyn weterynaryjny. 15(110), 38–40 (in Polish).

Polton, G. (2009). Mammary tumours in dogs. Irish. Veterinary J, 62(1), 50 56.

Potoc'kyj, M.K., Shestjajeva, N.I. (2004). Fibrozno-kistozna hvoroba molochnoi' zalozy sobak. Naukovyj visnyk L'vivs'koi' nacional'noi' akademii' veterynarnoi' medycyny im. S. Z. Gzhyc'kogo, 6(3), 79–85 (in Ukrainian).

Shestjajeva, N.I. (2011). Znachennja dysplazii' u vynyknenni zlojakisnyh puhlyn molochnyh zaloz sobak. Naukovyj Visnyk Dnipropetrovs'kogo derzhavnogo agrarnogo universytetu, 2, 9293 (in Ukrainian).

Sleeckx, N., de Rooster, H., Veldhuis, K., Van Ginneken, C., Van Brantegem L. (2011). Canine mammary tumours, an overview. Reprod Domest Anim, 46, 1112 1131. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2011.01816.x

Smith, A.N. (2008). Ograniczenia badania USG wocenie stopnia zaawansowania nowotworow. Weterynaria po Dyplomie, 9(5), 32 (in Polish).

Vascellari, M., Baioni, E., Ru, G., Carminato, А. (2009). Animal tumour registry of two provinces in northern Italy: incidence of spontaneous tumours in dogs and cats. BMC Veterinary Research, 5, 39 doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-5-39

Vlasenko, V.M., Rublenko, M.V., Il'nyc'kyj, M.G. (2010). Suchasni metody instrumental'nyh doslidzhen' u veterynarnij hirurgii' naukovo-metodychnyj posibnyk. Bila Cerkva (in Ukrainian).


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

© 2017 Ukrainian Journal of Ecology. ISSN 2520-2138