Cytogenetic disorders in Triticum aestivum L. cells, induced by heavy metal releases from industrial production

R. A. Yakimchuk

Abstract


A cytogenetic analysis of meristem cells of Triticum aestivum L. of primary rootlets, affected by soil heavy metal (HM) contamination in the industrial zones of SC “Poltavachimmash” in Poltava city, PPC “Specialized company for thermal processing of firm household garbage” (SCTPFHG) in Khrakiv city, PrSC “Avtoradiator” in Mariupol city, CC (commercial company) “Poltava concrete product plant” (PCPP) in Poltava city, SJC “Luhansk accumulator producing company” in Luhansk city, UC “Lubny water supply station” in Lubny city and the territory near B. Khmelnytskyi Street in Kostiantynivka, was made. The frequency of aberrant cells of sprout root meristem of cultivar Al’batros odes’kyi was 1.37-2.30 % and that of cultivar Zymoiarka – 1.22-1.84 %, which exceeded the indicators of a background level by 1.9-3 and 1.6-2,5 times, correspondingly (Svatky village, Poltava region). The highest cytogenetic activity was recorded within the territory of the industrial zones of PrSC “Avtoradiator”, SC “Poltavachimmash”, SJC “Luhansk accumulator producing company”, the soils there were characterized by intensive Cd, Pb і Zn contamination. Significant differences in the levels of cytogenetic disorders depending on a wheat cultivar genotype, induced by high concentrations of soil toxic metals in the industrial zone of PPC “Specialized company for thermal processing of firm household garbage” and the territory near B. Khmel’nytskyi Street in Kostiantynivka, can be caused by physiological-genetic peculiarities of the plants and a possible effect of non-differentiated factors, specific for each territory. Complex effect of low HM concentrations, typical for soil contamination of the industrial zone of CC “Poltava concrete product plant”, showed the lowest cytogenetic activity. Soil contamination with HM in the industrial zones and the areas affected by industrial releases resulted in a wide spectrum of cytogenetic disorders: fragmentation, advance and lagging chromosomes, formation of chromosome and chromatid bridges, ring chromosomes, micronuclei. A significant increase of the cells with advance and lagging chromosomes was seen under the effect of HM soil contamination of the industrial zones of PrSC “Avtoradiator”, SC “Poltavachimmash”, UC “Lubny water supply station” and the territory near B. Khmel’nytskyi Street in Kostiantynivka, Cd, Pb і Zn predominating among them. The induction with high frequency of aneuploid cells shows active interaction of HM with the threads of spindle division which allows using the violation fact of chromosome segregation as an indicator of HM contamination of the environment. As a result of wheat seed sprouting in the soil with the highest HM content (PPC “Specialized Company for thermal processing of firm household garbage”, PrSC “Avtoradiator”, SC “Poltavachimmash”, UC “Lubny water supply station” and the territory near B. Khmelnytskyi Street in Kostiantynivka), besides mentioned-above chromosome aberrations and mitosis pathology in meristem cells, the following complicated cytogenetic disorders occurred: single/pair fragments and bridge; pair fragments and lagging chromosomes; pair fragments, bridge and ring chromosome; pair fragments, chromosome bridge and micronucleus. High cytogenetic activity of HM soil contamination, caused by industrial releases, confirms genetic threat for the organisms of above-ground ecosystems and suggests the necessity to work out a national program of large-scale genetic monitoring over techno-genic contamination of the territories in the industrial regions of Ukraine.


Keywords


: T. Aestivum L.; cytogenetic activity; heavy metals; cytogenetic disorders; chromosome aberrations

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15421/2018_217

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