O. O. Lysak, P. H. Shevchenko, V. V. Tsedyk


Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi) – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi) and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish.  Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color) in the following way: group I (sample) – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi), group II – black and white form (Kumonryu), group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono), group IV – red and white form (Kohaku). For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample) for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard) length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture.

Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of variances of morphometric indexes of fish from different groups is mathematically approved by Student’s index-criterion. Variances were considered to be valid if Student’s criterion exceeded 2, 68 at insurance level of magnitude α = 0,01 that is accepted as an ample for majority of biological objects. By comparison of different carp koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) forms researchers used Mayr’s coefficient of resolution. (CD). It is evident that the less curves of two compared populations are lapped over, the more difference is between middle М1 and М2 divided by sum of middle quadric deviations σ1 і σ2. Coefficient of directive deviation (Кdv) characterizes percentage deviation of two compared indexes of particular attribute. For deviation determination (Кdv) between the index, the difference between an attribute A and the same attribute of sample index E is necessary to divide by index of attribute E and multiply by 100%.Estimation criterion is the same as in variability index – low level of deviation Кdv ≤ 5%, middle Кdv  = 10-30%, large Кdv > 30-50%. At conducting the morphological analysis of groups №I-IV of carp koi different forms authors researched 30 plastic attributes. Plastic attributes were grouped according to indexes which were determined by percents from zoological length of the body ( standard length, trunk length, the biggest and smallest heights, antidorsal and postdorsal distances, length of tail-stem, antipectoral, antiventral, antianal pectroventral, ventroanal distances and length of a head); were determined by percents from length of a head ( length of a fish snout, eye diameter, sight unseen distance, height and width of forehead, lengths of lower and upper jaw, height of the head near the nape and through the middle of the eye) but the measuring of all the fins were held separately so as for koi they are the criterion for estimation of form quality, which also were determined by percents from body length ( the biggest height and length of dorsal fin, the biggest height and length of anal fin, length of chest and ventral fin, lower and upper flippers of tail fin). Taking research into account we determined the sample form (group №1) which according to indexes of growth potential was proved to be the best, it means that difference from Amur carp in group №1 was the lowest. The majority of researched plastic attributes expressed in nominal average data of compared forms (groups) of Japanese carp koi ( №I-IV) were on quite low level of variation (pic.1.): variability index did not exceed 10%, approximately third part of indexes were on middle level of variation, variability index was in boundaries of 10-25% and only one index ( forehead height) was on high level of variation (more than 25%).

Trustworthiness of variances of Japanese carp koi different forms between sample group (№I) and every group from research colorful forms was mathematically approved  by indexes of Student’s criterion (tst), Mayr’s variability index (CD) and by coefficient of directed deviation (Кdv).

Emerging from these estimation criteria of trustworthiness of variances between attributes of different carp koi forms it may be concluded that from 30 different attributes only 5 are approved at least by two coefficients (table). Large difference at once by 3 coefficients is approved between sample and group №IV according to “forehead height (ho)” which estimates tst  = 9,8 ≥ tcr = 2,68; CD = 1,46; Кdv = 32,1%, thus achieving the level of subspecies according to Mayr’s coefficient. But the indexes of this attribute are impossible to be adequately estimated because of difficulties in the process of its measuring, indexes of this attribute should better be considered among with other attributes.

But there are attributes that point at trustworthy variance according to index of Student’s criterion (tst) and are approved by coefficient of directed deviation (Kdv). As you can see the basic level of deviations is concentrated on the attributes which were determined from head length (ho, mx, mn).These attributes may characterize the adjustment of carp koi to more active catching of food items, so as brighter colorful indexes scare them, especially when the water in water pond is highly limpid. It is also interesting to note the high density of fish planting (3000 exemplars per 0,2 ha), it tells us about high level of contest between different colorful  koi forms for food organisms. Among other things, increased indexes of attributes like “tail-stem length” (pl) and “basis of anal fin length” (lA) in three the brightest groups may point at increase of reoration power in these fish. It is possible to make an assumption that increase of indexes of these attributes was not caused by other factors of water environment, except bright color of fish (it means that this attribute may characterize connection of colorful carp koi forms with difficulties at gaining food organisms. Author conducted morpho-metric study of basic forms of Japanese carp koi. Study showed the specificity of variational changes of plastic attributes of different forms of carp koi upon condition of keeping them in the same conditions. Author researched the variance between forms of carps koi, which is proved by indexes of Student coefficients, Mayr resolution and by directional deviation.

Keywords: Cyprinus carpio koi, carp koi forms, deviation, coefficients, attributes.

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