MORFOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE WARM-BLOODED ANIMALS` SPLEEN

O. F. Dunaievska

Abstract


 

The spleen is an important multifunctional organ, one of parts of the peripheral immune system and hematopoiesis. It is sensitive to biotic, abiotic, and environmental factors. Determination of morphological features and morphometric parameters are important for the development of organ test-systems. The major indicators are the relative weight of the spleen and its main structural components. These criteria could be used in the therapy, prevention, pathology, the study of influence of factors of different origins, for received from farm animals environmentally friendly and safe products. Our research was carried out by light microscopy with the production of permanent histological preparations. The formalin and Сarnoy liquid were used as fixatives. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin, eosin, and azure by methods of Van Gieson and Brachet. Spleen has the same structure and principle consists of a support-contractile apparatus and pulp in birds and mammals. Each animal species had its own characteristic of morphological features. The relative weight of spleen was the greatest in horses (0.48±0,01 %) and the lowest was in pigeons (0.02±0.01 %). Support-contractile apparatus was better developed in horses (13.64±1.13 %) and sheep (12.08±0.42 %), and the lesser in chickens (3.02±0.95 %) and rabbits (5.87±0.69 %). The proportion of trabecular system prevailed on the proportion of capsules in all studied animals, except rabbits. The birds had no radial trabeculae, in rabbits they are insignificant. The number of capsular trabecular are lesser than the pulps in horses, pigs, and sheep. Large pulps` trabeculae are united together, forming trabecular tree, while parenchyma is formed by the white and red pulp. The main structural components of the white pulp are the lymphoid nodules and lymphoid sheath near the vessels. The lymphoid nodules have zonal structure in mammals, whereas they are absent in birds. The relative area of lymphoid nodules in animals dominates under the area of lymphoid sheaths near the vessels; this difference was more than twice in horses (5.01±0.63 and 2.41±0.17 %), rabbits (11.95±2.67 and 5.73±1.40 %). In all the studied mammals the light center had the largest relative area in rabbits (2.08±0.49 %), and the lowest was registered in horses (0.98±0.11 %). The marginal zone occupies the largest relative area in sheep (6.52±0.98 %), the least – in horses (2.02±0.12 %). The mantle zone and zone near the vessels were better developed in rabbits (3.36±0.76 and 2.41±0.84 %); the red pulp was better developed in chickens (78.30±1.98 %), pigs (78.87±2.36 %) and horses (78.94±4.39 %), while sheep had the lesser developed red pulp (69.99±1.0 %).


Keywords


spleen; morphology; mammals; birds; chickens; pigeons; sheep; pigs; horses; rabbits.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Gereza J.R. Deoxynivalenol alone or in combination with nivalenol and zearalenone induce systemic histological changes in pigs / J.R. Gereza, Ph. Pinton, P. Callu, F. Grosjeand, I.P. Oswald, Ana Paula F.L. Bracarense // Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. – 2015. – № 67. – Р. 89–98.

Ikegami R. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit spleen / R. Ikegami, Y. Tanimoto, M. Kishimoto, H. Shibata // J. Vet. Med. Sci. – 2016. – №78(2). – P. 199–202. doi: 10.1292/jvms.15–0297.

Kannan T.A. Electron Microscopic Studies of Spleen in Chicken (Gallus domesticus) / Kannan T.A., Geetha Ramesh, Ushakumari S., Dhinakarraj G., Vairamuthu S. // International Journal of Advanced Veterinary Science and Technology. – 2015. – Volume 4, Issue 1. – Р. 160–165.

Kannan T.A. Light microscopic studies on spleen of chicken (Gallus domesticus) / Kannan T.A., Geetha Ramesh, Ushakumari S., Raj G.D., Vairamuthu S. // Haryana Veterinarian. – 2012. – Volume 51. – Р. 114–115.

Pradana A.R.A. Mobilization of CD4+, CD8+, and B220+on Broiler Chicken Spleen with Feed Contained Polyscias obtusa Post Infection of Salmonella typhimurium / Pradana A.R.A., Djati M., Rifa’i M. // J.Exp. Life Sci. – 2013. – Volume 3, № 1. – Р. 7–12.

Горальський Л.П. Основи гістологічної техніки і морфофункціональні методи досліджень у нормі та при патології: навч. посібник /

Горальський Л.П., Хомич В.Т., Кононський О.І. – Житомир: Полісся, 2005. – 288 с.

Горальський Л.П. Особливості гістоархітектоніки імунних органів сільськогосподарських тварин / Л.П. Горальський // Ветеринарна медицина України. –2003. – №2. – С. 22–23.

Дунаєвська О.Ф. Функції селезінки в організмі хребетних тварин / О.Ф. Дунаєвська // Зб. матер. Міжнародної науково–практичної конференції «Наука в епоху дисбалансів» (25 січня 2016 р.), м. Київ. – К.: Велес, 2016. – Ч. 1. – С. 12–17.

Копылова С.В. Возрастная морфология селезёнки у цыплят – бройлеров кросса «Смена–7» : Монография / С.В. Копылова – Брянск: Ладомир, 2010 – 60 с.

Прокопець К.О. Морфофункціональні зміни селезінки після оклюзії її судин / К.О. Прокопець // Експериментальна і клінічна медицина. – 2014. – № 2 (63). – С. 127–130.

Садыкова Н.Н. Морфология и кровоснабжение селезёнки в кролика в возрастном аспекте / Н.Н. Садыкова // Морфология – 2016. – Т. 49. № 3. – С. 177.

Степанова Е.В. Морфометрические показатели селезёнки птиц кросса «Хайсекс браун» / Степанова Е.В., Родина Е.Е., Водяницкая Т.С., Игнатенко И.В., Косенкова Д.А., Зайцева Е.В. // Вавиловские чтения – 2004:Материалы Всероссийской научно–практической конференции посвящённой 117–й годовщине со дня рождения академіка Н. И. Вавилова – Саратов: Саратовский гос. аграрн. ун–т, 2004. – С. 24–27.

Фёдоров В.Х. Возрастная морфология тимуса и селезёнки у свиней мясных типов / В.Х. Фёдоров // Ветеринарная патология. – 2010. – №4. – С. 111–115.

Финогенова Ю.А. Морфогенез селезёнки бройлеров / Ю.А. Финогенова // Экологическая безопасность региона. – Брянск, 2009 – С. 372–375.

Шапкин Ю.Г. Значение селезенки в иммунном статусе организма / Ю.Г. Шапкин // Анналы хирургии. – 2009. – № 1. – С. 9–12.

Шаршембиев Д.А. Морфология тимуса и селезёнки в условиях воздействия на организм иммуномодуляторов на основе полиоксидония : Автореф. дисс. … доктора мед. наук. – М., 2004. – 42 с.

REFERENCES

Dunaіеvska, O.F. (2016). Funktsіуi selezіnki v organіzmі hrebetnih tvarin. Proceed. Int. Sc. Conf. “Nauka v epohu disbalansіv”. Kiev: Veles (in Ukrainian).

Finogenova, Yu.A. (2009). Morfogenez selezenki broylerov. Ekologicheskaya bezopasnost regiona. Bryansk (in Ukrainian).

Fеodorov, V.H. (2010). Vozrastnaya morfologiya timusa i selezуonki u sviney myasnyih tipov. Veterinarnaya patologiya, 4, 111–115 (in Russian).

Gereza, J.R., Pinton, Ph., Callu, P., Grosjeand, F., Oswald, I.P., Paula, A., Bracarense, F.L. (2015) Deoxynivalenol alone or in combination with nivalenol and zearalenone induce systemic histological changes in pigs. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 67, 89–98.

Goralskiy, L.P. (2003). Osoblivostі gіstoarkhіtektonіki іmunnikh organіv sіlskogospodarskikh tvarin. Veterinarna meditsina Ukraїni, 2, 22–23 (in Ukrainian).

Goralskiy, L.P., Homich, V.T., Kononskiy, O.I. (2005). Osnovi gistologichnoyi tehniki i morfofunktsionalni metodi doslidzhen u normi ta pri patologiyi: navch. posibnik. Zhitomir: Polissya (in Ukrainian).

Ikegami, R., Tanimoto, Y., Kishimoto, M., Shibata, H. (2016). Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit spleen. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 78(2), 199–202. doi: 10.1292/jvms.15-0297.

Kannan, T.A., Geetha, R., Ushakumari, S., Raj, G.D., Vairamuthu, S. (2012). Light microscopic studies on spleen of chicken (Gallus domesticus). Haryana Veterinarian, 51, 114–115.

Kannan, T.A., Geetha, R., Ushakumari, S., Raj, G.D., Vairamuthu, S. (2015). Electron Microscopic Studies of Spleen in Chicken (Gallus domesticus). International Journal of Advanced Veterinary Science and Technology, 4(1), 160–165.

Kopyilova, S. V. (2010). Vozrastnaya morfologiya selezenki u tsyplyat - broylerov krossa “Smena-7”. Bryansk: Ladomir (in Russian).

Pradana, A.R.A., Djati, M., Rifa’i, M. (2013). Mobilization of CD4+, CD8+, and B220+on Broiler Chicken Spleen with Feed Contained Polyscias obtusa Post Infection of Salmonella typhimurium. J.Exp. Life Sci., 3(1), 7–12.

Prokopets, K.O. (2014). Morfofunktsionalni zmini selezinki pislya oklyuziуi уiуi sudin. Eksperimentalna і klіnіchna meditsina, 2(63), 127–130 (in Ukrainian).

Sadyikova, N.N. (2016). Morfologiya i krovosnabzhenie selezenki v krolika v vozrastnom aspekte. Morfologiya, 49(3), 177 (in Russian).

Shapkin, Yu.G. (2009). Znachenie selezenki v immunnom statuse organizma. Annalyi hirurgii, 1, 9–12 (in Russian).

Sharshembiev, D.A. (2004). Morfologiya timusa i selezyonki v usloviyah vozdeystviya na organizm immunomodulyatorov na osnove polioksidoniya. Thesis of Doctoral Dissertation. Moscow (in Russian).

Stepanova, E.V., Rodina, Ye.Ye., Vodyanitskaya, T.S., Ignatenko, I.V., Kosenkova, D.A., Zaytseva, Ye.V. (2004). Morfometricheskie pokazateli selezenki ptits krossa “Khayseks braun”. Vavilovskie chteniya–2004. Proceed. All-Russian Sc. Conf. Saratov: Saratov State Agrarian University (in Russian).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15421/2016110

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Since April 2018 Journal changed the editorial policy and starts to be published exclusively in English, and changed its main site into www.ujecology.com

 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

© 2017 Ukrainian Journal of Ecology. ISSN 2520-2138